A catalogue of PROMs in sports science: Quality assessment of PROM development and validation

Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2021 May;31(5):991-998. doi: 10.1111/sms.13923. Epub 2021 Mar 4.


Choosing the most adequate PROM for a study is a non-trivial process. The aim of this study was to provide a catalogue with analyses of content and construct validity of PROMs relevant to research in sports science, including all published local translations. The most commonly used PROMs in sports research were selected from a PubMed search "patient reported outcome measures sports", identifying 439 articles and 194 different PROMs. Articles describing development of the 61 selected PROMs were assessed for content validity, and all articles regarding construct validity of each PROM and all published translations (in total 622 articles) were analyzed. A catalogue with assessments of the 61 PROMs was produced. The majority were of inferior validity, with few exceptions. The most common reason for this was that the PROM had not been developed by methods that ensure high content validity. Another major reason for inferior validity was that construct validity had not been secured by adequate statistical methods. In conclusion, this catalogue provides a tool for researchers to facilitate choosing the most valid PROM for studies in sports research. Furthermore, it shows for popular PROMs where further validation is needed, and for fields in musculoskeletal medicine where valid PROMs are lacking. It is suggested that a targeted effort is made to develop valid PROMs for major conditions in musculoskeletal research. The current method is easier to practice compared with assessment after COSMIN guidelines.

Keywords: PROM; catalogue of PROMs; construct validity; content validity; patient-reported outcome measures; sports medicine; sports traumatology; validation.

MeSH terms

  • Athletic Injuries / therapy
  • Humans
  • Patient Reported Outcome Measures*
  • Quality Control
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sports Medicine*