Determinants of morbidity and mortality due to acute respiratory infections: implications for intervention

J Infect Dis. 1988 Apr;157(4):615-23. doi: 10.1093/infdis/157.4.615.


Acute respiratory infections (ARI) were monitored every two weeks in an urban community in Metro Manila, Philippines, to determine the incidence and risk factors for ARI morbidity. Hospitalized children with acute lower-respiratory-tract infection (ALRI) were studied to determine case-fatality rates (CFR) and predictors for mortality. Incidence rates were highest in infants, 3.2-4.0 per person, followed by children one to four years of age, with corresponding rates of 3.0-3.4 per person. The risk factors for ARI morbidity were low socioeconomic status and age less than one year. A CFR of 5% in children with ALRI was observed. Malnutrition and a positive culture of blood were significant risk factors for mortality. These identified risk factors underscore the value of primary health care interventions, such as the standard ARI case management, immunization, health education, promotion of breast-feeding, and vitamin A supplementation, as strategies for reducing ARI mortality in developing countries.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Age Factors
  • Female
  • Hospitalization
  • Parity
  • Philippines
  • Regression Analysis
  • Respiratory Tract Infections / epidemiology*
  • Respiratory Tract Infections / mortality
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking
  • Socioeconomic Factors