Background: The increased frequency of bacteraemias caused by pandrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (PDR-Kp) has significant implications. The aim of the present study was to identify predictors associated with mortality of PDR-Kp bacteraemias.
Methods: Patients with monomicrobial bacteraemia due to PDR-Kp were included. K. pneumoniae was considered PDR if it showed resistance to all available groups of antibiotics. Primary outcome was 30-day mortality. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of meropenem, tigecycline, fosfomycin, and ceftazidime/avibactam were determined by Etest, whereas for colistin, the broth microdilution method was applied. bla KPC, bla VIM, bla NDM, and bla OXA genes were detected by PCR.
Results: Among 115 PDR-Kp bacteraemias, the majority of infections were primary bacteraemias (53; 46.1%), followed by catheter-related (35; 30.4%). All isolates were resistant to tested antimicrobials. bla KPC was the most prevalent carbapenemase gene (98 isolates; 85.2%). Thirty-day mortality was 39.1%; among 51 patients with septic shock, 30-day mortality was 54.9%. Multivariate analysis identified the development of septic shock, Charlson comorbidity index, and bacteraemia other than primary or catheter-related as independent predictors of mortality, while a combination of at least three antimicrobials was identified as an independent predictor of survival.
Conclusions: Mortality of PDR-Kp bloodstream infections was high. Administration of at least three antimicrobials might be beneficial for infections in critically ill patients caused by such pathogens.
Keywords: bacteraemia; carbapenem-resistance; carbapenemase; intensive care unit (ICU); pandrug-resistance.