Angiogenic Effects of Secreted Factors from Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells

Dent J (Basel). 2021 Jan 15;9(1):9. doi: 10.3390/dj9010009.


Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammation of tooth-supporting tissues, and the destruction of these tissues results in tooth loss. Regeneration of periodontal tissues is the ultimate goal of periodontal treatment. We previously reported that transplantation of conditioned medium (CM) of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) demonstrated the enhancement of periodontal tissue regeneration, compared to CM from fibroblasts (Fibroblast-CM). We hypothesized that the angiogenic effects of PDLSC-CM might participate in the enhanced wound healing of periodontal tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PDLSC-CM on the functions of endothelial cells. PDLSCs were cultured from periodontal ligament tissues obtained from healthy volunteers. Human gingival epithelial cells, dermal fibroblasts, osteoblasts, and umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were purchased from commercial sources. The functions of endothelial cells were examined using immunostaining of Ki67, observation of nuclear fragmentation and condensation (apoptosis), and network formation on Matrigel. Vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) level was measured using an ELISA kit. HUVECs demonstrated higher cell viability in PDLSC-CM when compared with those in Fibroblast-CM. HUVECs demonstrated a higher number of Ki67-positive cells and lower apoptosis cells in PDLSC-CM, compared to Fibroblast-CM. Additionally, HUVECs formed more capillary-like structures in PDLSC-CM than Fibroblast-CM. PDLSC-CM contained higher levels of angiogenic growth factor, VEGF, than Fibroblast-CM. Our results showed that PDLSC-CM increased cell viability, proliferation, and capillary formation of HUVECs compared to Fibroblast-CM, suggesting the angiogenic effects of PDLSC-CM, and the effect is a potential regenerative mechanism of periodontal tissues by PDLSC-CM.

Keywords: angiogenesis; periodontal disease; periodontal ligament; regeneration; stem cells.