Non-uniform sampling for NOESY? A case study on spiramycin

Magn Reson Chem. 2021 Jul;59(7):723-737. doi: 10.1002/mrc.5133. Epub 2021 Feb 2.


To date, most nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based 3-D structure determinations of both small molecules and of biopolymers utilize the nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) via NOESY spectra. The acquisition of high-quality NOESY spectra is a prerequisite for quantitative analysis providing accurate interatomic distances. As the acquisition of NOE build-ups is time-consuming, acceleration of the process by the use of non-uniform sampling (NUS) may seem beneficial; however, the quantitativity of NOESY spectra acquired with NUS has not yet been validated. Herein, NOESY spectra with various extents of NUS have been recorded, artificial NUS spectra with two different sampling schemes created, and by using two different NUS reconstruction algorithms the influence of NUS on the data quality was evaluated. Using statistical analyses, NUS is demonstrated to influence the accuracy of quantitative NOE experiments. The NOE-based distances show an increased error as the sampling density decreases. Weak NOE signals are affected more severely by NUS than more intense ones. The application of NUS with NOESY comes at two major costs: the interatomic distances are determined with lower accuracy and long-range correlations are lost.