Perovskite solar cell device performance is affected by optical and electronic losses. To minimize these losses in solar cells, it is important to identify their sources. Here, we report the optical and electronic losses arising from physically mixed interfacial layers between the adjacent component materials in highly efficient two terminal (2T) all-perovskite tandem, single-junction wide-bandgap, and single-junction narrow-bandgap perovskite-based solar cells. Physically mixed interfacial layers as the sources of optical and electronic losses are identified from spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements and data analysis followed by comparisons of simulated and measured external quantum efficiency spectra. Parasitic absorbance in the physically mixed regions between silver metal electrical contacts and electron transport layers (ETLs) near the back contact and a physical mixture of commercial indium tin oxide and hole transport layers (HTL) near the front electrical contact lead to substantial optical loss. A lower-density void + perovskite nucleation layer formed during perovskite deposition at the interface between the perovskite absorber layer and the HTL causes electronic losses because of incomplete collection of photogenerated carriers likely originating from poor coverage and passivation of the initially nucleating grains.
Keywords: external quantum efficiency modeling; interfacial layers; optical and electronic losses; optical properties; perovskite solar cells; spectroscopic ellipsometry.