Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have attracted great attention due to their known role in facilitating intercellular communication in a diverse range of cellular processes. In the 30 years since the discovery of exosomes, a class of EV, they have gone from being considered a cellular waste disposal mechanism to an important aspect of cell-to-cell communication. The exponential interest in exosomes in recent years is due to their key role in health and disease and their potential clinical application in therapy and diagnosis. This review aims to provide an updated picture of the sources, isolation methods, therapeutic outcomes and current application of EVs, in particular exosomes.
Keywords: cell-free therapy; characterization; drug delivery; exosomes; extracellular vesicles; mesenchymal stem cell.