Association between reproductive health and nonionizing radiation exposure

Electromagn Biol Med. 2021 Jan 2;40(1):92-102. doi: 10.1080/15368378.2021.1874973. Epub 2021 Jan 20.


Recently, a decreasing rate of fertility has to be credited to an array of factors such as environmental, health and lifestyle. Male infertility is likely to be affected by the strong exposure to heat and radiations. The most common sources of nonionizing radiations are cell phones, laptops, Wi-Fi and microwave ovens, which may participate to the cause of male infertility. One of the major sources of daily exposure to non-ionizing radiation is mobile phones. A mobile phone is now basically dominating our daily life through better services such as connectivity, smartphone devices. However, the health consequences are linked with their usage are frequently ignored. Constant exposure to non-ionizing radiations produced from a cell phone is one of the possible reasons for growing male infertility. Recently, several studies have shown that cell phone users have altered sperm parameters causing declining reproductive health. Cell phone radiation harms male fertility by affecting the different parameters like sperm motility, sperm count, sperm morphology, semen concentration, morphometric abnormalities, increased oxidative stress along with some hormonal changes. This review is focusing on the prevailing literature from in vitro and in vivo studies suggesting that non-ionizing exposure negatively affects human male infertility.

Keywords: Nonionizing radiation; biological effects; male infertility; mobile phone; reproductive health; sperm.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Fertility / radiation effects
  • Humans
  • Radiation Exposure / adverse effects*
  • Radio Waves / adverse effects
  • Reproductive Health*