Prevalence and Predictors of Venous Thromboembolism or Mortality in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients

Thromb Haemost. 2021 Aug;121(8):1043-1053. doi: 10.1055/a-1366-9656. Epub 2022 Mar 11.


Background: We aimed to identify the prevalence and predictors of venous thromboembolism (VTE) or mortality in hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study of hospitalized adult patients admitted to an integrated health care network in the New York metropolitan region between March 1, 2020 and April 27, 2020. The final analysis included 9,407 patients with an overall VTE rate of 2.9% (2.4% in the medical ward and 4.9% in the intensive care unit [ICU]) and a VTE or mortality rate of 26.1%. Most patients received prophylactic-dose thromboprophylaxis. Multivariable analysis showed significantly reduced VTE or mortality with Black race, history of hypertension, angiotensin converting enzyme/angiotensin receptor blocker use, and initial prophylactic anticoagulation. It also showed significantly increased VTE or mortality with age 60 years or greater, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) of 3 or greater, patients on Medicare, history of heart failure, history of cerebrovascular disease, body mass index greater than 35, steroid use, antirheumatologic medication use, hydroxychloroquine use, maximum D-dimer four times or greater than the upper limit of normal (ULN), ICU level of care, increasing creatinine, and decreasing platelet counts.

Conclusion: In our large cohort of hospitalized COVID-19 patients, the overall in-hospital VTE rate was 2.9% (4.9% in the ICU) and a VTE or mortality rate of 26.1%. Key predictors of VTE or mortality included advanced age, increasing CCI, history of cardiovascular disease, ICU level of care, and elevated maximum D-dimer with a cutoff at least four times the ULN. Use of prophylactic-dose anticoagulation but not treatment-dose anticoagulation was associated with reduced VTE or mortality.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Blood Coagulation
  • COVID-19 / blood
  • COVID-19 / complications*
  • COVID-19 / diagnosis
  • COVID-19 / mortality
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Prognosis
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • SARS-CoV-2 / isolation & purification
  • Venous Thromboembolism / blood
  • Venous Thromboembolism / diagnosis
  • Venous Thromboembolism / etiology*
  • Venous Thromboembolism / mortality
  • Young Adult