Introduction: The DAPA-CKD trial assessed dapagliflozin in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) with or without type 2 diabetes (T2D). To aid interpretation of results, renal and cardiovascular outcomes plus healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) and costs were assessed in a real-world population similar to that of DAPA-CKD.
Methods: Henry Ford Health System (2006-2016) data were used to identify patients with CKD stages 2-4 [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 25-75 ml/min/1.73 m2 at index and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) 0-5000 mg/g; n = 22,251]. Included patients had confirmatory eGFR ≥ 90 days post-index and no kidney transplant or progression to end-stage kidney disease during 12 months pre-index. The final population (n = 6557) was stratified by UACR (0-29, 30-199 and 200-5000 mg/g; the last comprising the DAPA-CKD-like cohort). Patients were followed for 5 years post-index.
Results: Adverse clinical outcomes incidence increased with UACR and was highest for the DAPA-CKD-like cohort (UACR 200-5000 mg/g) versus lower UACR categories (0-29 mg/g and 30-199 mg/g): renal composite outcome (progression to CKD stage 5, dialysis, transplant, ≥ 50% sustained eGFR decline): 26.0% versus 2.2% and 5.8%; heart failure (HF): 36.1% versus 13.9% and 24.6%; myocardial infarction: 11.3% versus 4.7% and 7.4%; stroke: 8.9% versus 4.0% and 5.7%; and mortality: 18.5% versus 6.0% and 11.7%, respectively. Within the DAPA-CKD-like cohort, patients with versus without T2D or HF had a higher frequency of adverse outcomes. The DAPA-CKD-like cohort also had significantly higher annualized per-patient healthcare costs ($39,222/year versus $19,547/year), hospital admission rate (0.55/year versus 0.20/year) and outpatient specialist visit rate (7.55/year versus 6.74/year) versus the lowest UACR category.
Conclusion: The significant adverse renal and cardiovascular outcomes observed, particularly in the DAPA-CKD-like cohort, represent a substantial burden resulting in increased mortality, HCRU and costs, demonstrating the need for additional treatment options.
Keywords: Albuminuria; Chronic kidney disease; Dapagliflozin; Healthcare resource utilization; Heart failure; Real-world outcomes; Type 2 diabetes.