Metabolic aberrance is one of the hallmarks of cancer. The metabolic patterns in cancer cells are well reprogrammed to provide building blocks and energy for their sustained growth. During tumor metabolic reprogramming, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated and the antioxidant systems are activated. High levels of ROS lead to oxidative damage and even cell death, whereas ROS at low levels act as second messenger to regulate many signaling pathways. Recently, with the revisiting of oxidative stress, it has been found that ROS can directly mediate the redox modifications of proteins, resulting in protein conformational and functional alterations. However, only a very small portion of metabolic enzymes, including glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and PKM2, etc., has been reported to undergo redox modifications. Whether other metabolic enzymes are regulated by redox modifications and thus exhibit critical functions remain largely unknown. Moreover, the specific spatio-temporal targeting of redox modifications of metabolic enzymes, as well as overcoming the existed redox and metabolic adaptation, are key points to be solved. Here, we will review the reported redox modification patterns of metabolic enzymes, the involved regulatory mechanisms and their roles in tumorigenesis and tumor progress. In addition, we will discuss the future therapeutic strategies targeting redox modifications of metabolic enzymes for tumor treatment.
Keywords: Oxidative stress; Reactive oxygen species; Redox modifications; Tumor metabolism; Tumor therapy.
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