A Biomimetic Drug Delivery System by Integrating Grapefruit Extracellular Vesicles and Doxorubicin-Loaded Heparin-Based Nanoparticles for Glioma Therapy

Nano Lett. 2021 Feb 10;21(3):1484-1492. doi: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c04753. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Abstract

Existing nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery systems for glioma systemic chemotherapy remain a great challenge due to poor delivery efficiency resulting from the blood brain barrier/blood-(brain tumor) barrier (BBB/BBTB) and insufficient tumor penetration. Here, we demonstrate a distinct design by patching doxorubicin-loaded heparin-based nanoparticles (DNs) onto the surface of natural grapefruit extracellular vesicles (EVs), to fabricate biomimetic EV-DNs, achieving efficient drug delivery and thus significantly enhancing antiglioma efficacy. The patching strategy allows the unprecedented 4-fold drug loading capacity compared to traditional encapsulation for EVs. The biomimetic EV-DNs are enabled to bypass BBB/BBTB and penetrate into glioma tissues by receptor-mediated transcytosis and membrane fusion, greatly promoting cellular internalization and antiproliferation ability as well as extending circulation time. We demonstrate that a high-abundance accumulation of EV-DNs can be detected at glioma tissues, enabling the maximal brain tumor uptake of EV-DNs and great antiglioma efficacy in vivo.

Keywords: biomimetic delivery system; glioma therapy; grapefruit extracellular vesicles; nanoparticles.