Existing nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery systems for glioma systemic chemotherapy remain a great challenge due to poor delivery efficiency resulting from the blood brain barrier/blood-(brain tumor) barrier (BBB/BBTB) and insufficient tumor penetration. Here, we demonstrate a distinct design by patching doxorubicin-loaded heparin-based nanoparticles (DNs) onto the surface of natural grapefruit extracellular vesicles (EVs), to fabricate biomimetic EV-DNs, achieving efficient drug delivery and thus significantly enhancing antiglioma efficacy. The patching strategy allows the unprecedented 4-fold drug loading capacity compared to traditional encapsulation for EVs. The biomimetic EV-DNs are enabled to bypass BBB/BBTB and penetrate into glioma tissues by receptor-mediated transcytosis and membrane fusion, greatly promoting cellular internalization and antiproliferation ability as well as extending circulation time. We demonstrate that a high-abundance accumulation of EV-DNs can be detected at glioma tissues, enabling the maximal brain tumor uptake of EV-DNs and great antiglioma efficacy in vivo.
Keywords: biomimetic delivery system; glioma therapy; grapefruit extracellular vesicles; nanoparticles.