Immune Responses Induced by mRNA Vaccination in Mice, Monkeys and Humans

Vaccines (Basel). 2021 Jan 18;9(1):61. doi: 10.3390/vaccines9010061.


In this concise review, we summarize the concepts behind mRNA vaccination. We discuss the innate and adaptive immune response generated by mRNA vaccines in different animal models and in humans. We give examples of viral infections where mRNA vaccines have shown to induce potent responses and we discuss in more detail the recent SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine trials in humans.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; Th1 polarization; antibody response; dendritic cell; mRNA vaccine; protein translation; type I interferon.

Publication types

  • Review