Advances in the Knowledge of the Underlying Airway Remodeling Mechanisms in Chronic Rhinosinusitis Based on the Endotypes: A Review

Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Jan 18;22(2):910. doi: 10.3390/ijms22020910.


Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the nasal and paranasal sinus mucosa that affects up to 10% of the population worldwide. CRS is the most representative disease of the upper respiratory tract where airway remodeling occurs, including epithelial damage, thickening of the basement membrane, fibrosis, goblet cell hyperplasia, subepithelial edema, and osteitis. CRS is divided into two phenotypes according to the presence or absence of nasal polyps: CRS with nasal polyp (CRSwNP) and CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP). Based on the underlying pathophysiologic mechanism, CRS is also classified as eosinophilic CRS and non-eosinophilic CRS, owing to Type 2 T helper (Th2)-based inflammation and Type 1 T helper (Th1)/Type 17 T helper (Th17) skewed immune response, respectively. Differences in tissue remodeling in CRS are suggested to be based on the clinical phenotype and endotypes; this is because fibrosis is prominent in CRSsNP, whereas edematous changes occur in CRSwNP, especially in the eosinophilic type. This review aims to summarize the latest information on the different mechanisms of airway remodeling in CRS according to distinct endotypes.

Keywords: airway remodeling; chronic rhinosinusitis; endotypes; tissue remodeling.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Airway Remodeling / genetics*
  • Airway Remodeling / immunology
  • Airway Remodeling / physiology
  • Chronic Disease / epidemiology
  • Fibrosis
  • Goblet Cells / classification
  • Goblet Cells / immunology
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / immunology*
  • Inflammation / pathology
  • Nasal Polyps / genetics
  • Nasal Polyps / immunology*
  • Nasal Polyps / pathology
  • Rhinitis / genetics
  • Rhinitis / immunology*
  • Rhinitis / pathology
  • Sinusitis
  • Th1 Cells / classification
  • Th1 Cells / immunology
  • Th17 Cells / classification
  • Th17 Cells / immunology
  • Th2 Cells / classification
  • Th2 Cells / immunology