Thirty-three mother-infant pairs were randomly assigned to one of three groups: control, talking, or interactive (RISS). The later treatment included massage, talking, eye contact and rocking. The intervention (RISS) was administered to determine whether mothers and their preterm infants who actively interacted with each other would differ on later maternal and infant behaviors. The talking and RISS treatments were administered at specified time intervals 24 hours after delivery. Prior to hospital discharge, mother-infant interaction was assessed during a feeding. Significant differences were identified among the three groups for maternal (p less than .03) and infant (p less than .05) behaviors. These results suggest that active maternal interaction with the premature infant may enhance specific components of mother-infant interaction.