Security in IoT networks is currently mandatory, due to the high amount of data that has to be handled. These systems are vulnerable to several cybersecurity attacks, which are increasing in number and sophistication. Due to this reason, new intrusion detection techniques have to be developed, being as accurate as possible for these scenarios. Intrusion detection systems based on machine learning algorithms have already shown a high performance in terms of accuracy. This research proposes the study and evaluation of several preprocessing techniques based on traffic categorization for a machine learning neural network algorithm. This research uses for its evaluation two benchmark datasets, namely UGR16 and the UNSW-NB15, and one of the most used datasets, KDD99. The preprocessing techniques were evaluated in accordance with scalar and normalization functions. All of these preprocessing models were applied through different sets of characteristics based on a categorization composed by four groups of features: basic connection features, content characteristics, statistical characteristics and finally, a group which is composed by traffic-based features and connection direction-based traffic characteristics. The objective of this research is to evaluate this categorization by using various data preprocessing techniques to obtain the most accurate model. Our proposal shows that, by applying the categorization of network traffic and several preprocessing techniques, the accuracy can be enhanced by up to 45%. The preprocessing of a specific group of characteristics allows for greater accuracy, allowing the machine learning algorithm to correctly classify these parameters related to possible attacks.
Keywords: Internet of Things; intrusion detection system; machine learning; preprocessing techniques; traffic categorization.