A Phase 3, Randomized, Investigator-blinded Trial Comparing Ceftobiprole With a Standard-of-care Cephalosporin, With or Without Vancomycin, for the Treatment of Pneumonia in Pediatric Patients

Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2021 Jun 1;40(6):e222-e229. doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000003077.


Background: The advanced-generation, broad-spectrum, intravenous (IV) cephalosporin, ceftobiprole, is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for adults with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) or community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), but its effects in pediatric patients have not been established.

Methods: In this multicenter, investigator-blinded, active-controlled, phase 3 study, patients 3 months to <18 years old with HAP or CAP requiring hospitalization were randomized (2:1) to ceftobiprole versus standard-of-care (SoC) IV cephalosporin treatments (ceftazidime or ceftriaxone), with or without vancomycin. After at least 3 days' IV treatment, patients demonstrating clinical improvement could be switched to an oral antibiotic, to complete a minimum of 7 days' treatment.

Results: Overall, 138 patients were randomized to ceftobiprole (n = 94) or a SoC cephalosporin (n = 44). Median time to oral switch was 6.0 days in the ceftobiprole group and 8.0 days in the SoC cephalosporin group. While on IV therapy, adverse events and treatment-related adverse events were reported by 20.2% and 8.5% of ceftobiprole-treated patients and 18.2% and 0% of SoC cephalosporin-treated patients. Early clinical response rates at day 4 in the intention-to-treat population were 95.7% and 93.2% (between-group difference, 2.6%; 95% confidence interval, -5.5% to 14.7%) in the ceftobiprole and comparator groups, and clinical cure rates at the test-of-cure visit were 90.4% and 97.7% (between-group difference, -7.3%; 95% confidence interval, -15.7% to 3.6%), respectively.

Conclusions: Ceftobiprole was well tolerated and, in this small phase 3 study, demonstrated similar efficacy to SoC cephalosporins in pediatric patients with HAP or CAP requiring hospitalization.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03439124.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase III
  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Cephalosporins / therapeutic use*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cross Infection / drug therapy
  • Cross Infection / microbiology
  • Female
  • Hospitalization / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infusions, Intravenous
  • Male
  • Pneumonia, Bacterial / drug therapy*
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Vancomycin / therapeutic use*


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Cephalosporins
  • ceftobiprole
  • Vancomycin

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT03439124