Myopic Traction Maculopathy: A New Perspective on Classification and Management

Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila). 2021 Jan 20;10(1):49-59. doi: 10.1097/APO.0000000000000347.


Myopic traction maculopathy (MTM) is a complex disease affecting approximately 30% of eyes with pathologic myopia. A review of the history of treatment of MTM with success rates and limitations of different surgical techniques are reported.The pathogenesis, the definition and the management were clarified in a recent study(cit). The MTM Staging System (MSS) table summarizes all the stages of MTM offering insights on the pathogenesis and natural evolution of the disease.Guidelines of management of MTM were therefore proposed, but customized for each stage.Initial stages 1a and 2a, which define maculoschisis in the inner or inner-outer or only outer layers of the retina, should be observed. Stages 3a and 4a, defining macular detachment with and without associated schisis, should be treated with a macular buckle (MB).Stage 1b, which is a lamellar macular hole in a myopic eye, should be treated with pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) only in symptomatic cases. Stages 2b, 3b, and 4b should be treated with a MB and PPV should be added in a second step only if the presence of a lamellar macular hole requires intervention to improve visual function.Stage 1c, which is a full thickness macular hole in a myopic eye, should be treated with PPV. Stages 2c, 3c and 4c should be treated with a combination of simultaneous MB + PPV to treat both the retinal pattern of schisis or detachment and the full thickness macular hole.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Macular Degeneration*
  • Myopia, Degenerative / complications
  • Myopia, Degenerative / surgery
  • Retinal Detachment / surgery
  • Retinal Perforations / diagnosis
  • Retinal Perforations / etiology
  • Retinal Perforations / surgery
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Tomography, Optical Coherence
  • Traction
  • Visual Acuity
  • Vitrectomy