Gadolinium-based radiosensitizing AGuIX nanoparticles (AGuIX) currently tested two phase 2 clinical trials in association with radiotherapy for the treatment of brain metastases. Here, excitatory/inhibitory neurotransmission was assessed in rat cortex nerve terminals in the presence of AGuIX and their constituents (DOTAGA and DOTAGA/Gd3+) at concentrations used for medical treatment, and those 5-24 times higher. The ambient level, transporter-mediated, tonic and exocytotic release of L-[14C]glutamate and [3H]GABA, the membrane potential of nerve terminals were not changed in the presence of AGuIX at concentrations used for medical treatment ([Gd3+] = 0.25 mM, corresponding to 0.25 g.L-1), and DOTAGA (0.25 mM) and DOTAGA/Gd3+ (0.25 mM/0.01 mM). Difference between AGuIX and the precursors was uncovered, when their concentrations were increased. AGuIX (1.25-6 mM) did not change any transport characteristics of L-[14C]glutamate and [3H]GABA, whereas, DOTAGA (1.25-6 mM) affected the membrane potential, ambient level, and exocytotic release of L-[14C]glutamate and [3H]GABA. Gd3+ did not mask, but even enhanced above effects of DOTAGA. Therefore, AGuIX did not influence glutamate- and GABA-ergic neurotransmission at the presynaptic site. In contrast, DOTAGA and mixture DOTAGA/Gd3+ significantly affected synaptic neurotransmission at high concentrations. AGuIX own structure that overcomes neurotoxic features of their constituents.
Keywords: AGuIX nanoparticles; DOTAGA; Exocytosis; GABA; Gd(3+); Glutamate; Neurotoxicity risk assessment; Neurotransmitter release; Presynaptic nerve terminals; Transporters.
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