Autologous bone grafting remains the gold standard for almost all bone void-filling orthopedic surgery. However, autologous bone grafting has several limitations, thus scientists are trying to identify an ideal synthetic material as an alternative bone graft substitute. Magnesium-doped biphasic calcium phosphate (Mg-BCP) has recently been in the spotlight and is considered to be a potential bone substitute. The Mg-BCP is a mixture of two bioceramics, that is, hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), doped with Mg2+ , and can be synthesized through chemical wet-precipitation, sol-gel, single diffusion gel, and solid state reactions. Regardless of the synthesis routes, it is found that the Mg2+ preferentially accommodates in β-TCP lattice instead of the HA lattice. The addition of Mg2+ to BCP leads to desirable physicochemical properties and is found to enhance the apatite-forming ability as compared to pristine BCP. In vitro results suggest that the Mg-BCP is bioactive and not toxic to cells. Implantation of Mg-BCP in in vivo models further affirmed its biocompatibility and efficacy as a bone substitute. However, like the other bioceramics, the optimum physicochemical properties of the Mg-BCP scaffold have yet to be determined. Further investigations are required regarding Mg-BCP applications in bone tissue engineering.
Keywords: beta tricalcium phosphate; biocompatibility; biphasic calcium phosphate; bone implant; hydroxyapatite.
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