The syndromes of mineralocorticoid excess describe a heterogeneous group of clinical manifestations leading to endocrine hypertension, typically either through direct activation of mineralocorticoid receptors or indirectly by impaired pre-receptor enzymatic regulation or through disturbed renal sodium homeostasis. The phenotypes of these disorders can be caused by inherited gene variants and somatic mutations or may be acquired upon exposures to exogenous substances. Regarding the latter, the symptoms of an acquired mineralocorticoid excess have been reported during treatment with azole antifungal drugs. The current review describes the occurrence of mineralocorticoid excess particularly during the therapy with posaconazole and itraconazole, addresses the underlying mechanisms as well as inter- and intra-individual differences, and proposes a therapeutic drug monitoring strategy for these two azole antifungals. Moreover, other therapeutically used azole antifungals and ongoing efforts to avoid adverse mineralocorticoid effects of azole compounds are shortly discussed.
Keywords: 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; Adverse drug reaction; Azole antifungal; CYP11B; Hypertension; Mineralocorticoid excess.
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