Management of Germ Cell Tumours of the Testes in Adult Patients: German Clinical Practice Guideline, PART II - Recommendations for the Treatment of Advanced, Recurrent, and Refractory Disease and Extragonadal and Sex Cord/Stromal Tumours and for the Management of Follow-Up, Toxicity, Quality of Life, Palliative Care, and Supportive Therapy

Urol Int. 2021;105(3-4):181-191. doi: 10.1159/000511245. Epub 2021 Jan 22.


Objectives: We developed the first German evidence- and consensus-based clinical guideline on diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of germ cell tumours (GCT) of the testes in adult patients. We present the guideline content in 2 separate publications. The present second part summarizes therecommendations for the treatment of advanced disease stages and for the management of follow-up and late effects.

Materials and methods: An interdisciplinary panel of 42 experts including 1 patient representative developed the guideline content. Clinical recommendations and statements were based on scientific evidence and expert consensus. For this purpose, evidence tables for several review questions, which were based on systematic literature searches (last search in March 2018), were provided. Thirty-one experts, who were entitled to vote, rated the final clinical recommendations and statements.

Results: Here we present the treatment recommendations separately for patients with metastatic seminoma and non-seminomatous GCT (stages IIA/B and IIC/III), for restaging and treatment of residual masses, and for relapsed and refractory disease stages. The recommendations also cover extragonadal and sex cord/stromal tumours, the management of follow-up and toxicity, quality-of-life aspects, palliative care, and supportive therapy.

Conclusion: Physicians and other medical service providers who are involved in the diagnostics, treatment, and follow-up of GCT (all stages, outpatient and inpatient care as well as rehabilitation) are the users of the present guideline. The guideline also comprises quality indicators for measuring the implementation of the guideline recommendations in routine clinical care; these data will be presented in a future publication.

Keywords: Extragonadal tumours; Follow-up; Germ cell tumour of the testes; Guideline; Metastasis; Non-seminoma; Palliative care; Quality of life; Seminoma; Stromal tumours; Supportive therapy; Systematic review; Therapy; Toxicity.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aftercare
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology
  • Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy*
  • Palliative Care
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • Quality of Life
  • Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / therapy*
  • Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • Testicular Neoplasms / therapy*