The ATP and creatine phosphate (PCr) contents in isolated guinea-pig hearts were determined by 31P-MRS measurement at 80.75 MHz using the Langendorff technique. Reperfusion of post-ischemic hearts with adenosine for 180 minutes increased ATP to 117.4% and decreased PCr to 59.8% of the preischemic value. Reperfusion without adenosine did not increase ATP and did not decrease PCr. The depressed cardiac function due to ischemia was remarkably improved in post-ischemic hearts by the increase in ATP due to adenosine. We found that the loss of ATP due to ischemia is not necessarily proportional to the extent of myocardial ischemic injury.