Association of Vitamin D or Calcium Supplementation with Cardiovascular Outcomes and Mortality: A Meta-Analysis with Trial Sequential Analysis

J Nutr Health Aging. 2021;25(2):263-270. doi: 10.1007/s12603-020-1551-9.


Background: To exploring the role of vitamin D or calcium supplementation in reducing all-cause mortality and cardiovascular outcomes.

Methods: The search was restricted to systematic reviews or meta-analyses published from January 1, 2010, to July 7, 2019. An additional search was performed to identify recently published randomized controlled trials (from January 1, 2015, to July 7, 2019). Homogeneous results from different studies were pooled using Revman 5.3 software.

Results: Twenty-three studies involving 89,251 participants were ultimately included in this meta-analysis. No associations were observed between the supplementation and composite cardiovascular outcomes, consisting of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, and other MACEs.

Conclusions: Whether used alone or in combination, vitamin D and calcium supplementation do not exert meaningful effects on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, MACEs or MI among community-dwelling adults.

Keywords: Evidence-based medicine; cardiovascular; meta-analysis; prevention; vitamin.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Calcium / metabolism*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / drug therapy*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / mortality
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Dietary Supplements / analysis*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Independent Living
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Prospective Studies
  • Survival Analysis
  • Vitamin D / metabolism*


  • Vitamin D
  • Calcium