Purpose: The purpose of this multicenter study was to evaluate the survival and quality outcome of direct composite buildups in the anterior dentition based on representative sample sizes. Materials and Methods: At three university clinics in Germany, the survival and quality outcome of n = 667 direct composite buildups performed between 2001 and 2012 was evaluated in n = 198 participants. Survival outcomes were categorized as failure (F), survival (SR), or successful (S). Restorations still in place and without failure prior to follow-up (n = 567) were rated using modified USPHS/FDI criteria to obtain the quality outcome. Detailed failure analysis was done by means of Cox regression models. Results: The restricted mean for overall survival was 15.5 years. N = 576 restorations were classified as successful (S), n = 81 survived with repair (SR) and n = 8 failed (F). Two restorations were removed due to iatrogenic interventions. Overall survival rates after 2, 10, and 15 years were 98.8% (CI: 97.6 and 99.4), 91.7% (CI: 89.0 and 93.8), and 77.6% (CI: 72.2 and 82.2), respectively. Functional survival rates were 100.0%, 98.9% (CI: 97.5 and 99.5), and 98.5% (CI: 96.7 and 99.3), respectively. Clinical quality was rated as excellent or good for most restorations. The dominant failure mode was chipping; however, regression analysis did not detect any influence of the evaluated parameters “enlargement range,” “position in the jaw,” or “tooth type” on failure. Conclusion: This multicenter study represents the first of its type including clinical survival and quality data on 576 direct anterior composite buildups over a restricted mean follow-up of 15.5 years in a relatively large group of participants. In particular, functional survival was outstanding due to the clinical reliability of this treatment option, while simultaneously providing flexibility, reparability, and minimal invasiveness.
Keywords: clinical quality parameters; diastema; direct composite buildups; follow-up; recontouring; survival.