Pediatric Cerebral Cavernous Malformations

Pediatr Neurol. 2021 Mar:116:74-83. doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2020.11.004. Epub 2020 Nov 27.


Cerebral cavernous malformations are the second most common vascular malformations in the central nervous system, and over one-third are found in children. Lesions may be solitary or multiple, be discovered incidentally, be sporadic, or be secondary to familial cavernomatosis or radiation therapy. Children may present with focal seizures, intracranial hemorrhage, or focal neurological deficits without radiological evidence of recent hemorrhage. We present several children with cerebral cavernous malformations and explore the challenges of their diagnosis in children, their key imaging features, the role of follow-up imaging, and their subsequent management including stereotactic radiosurgery and microsurgical resection. Individual patient risk stratification is advocated for all affected children and their families.

Keywords: Cerebral cavernous malformation; Child; Intracranial hemorrhage; Neurosurgery; Seizures; Vascular malformations.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System* / complications
  • Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System* / diagnostic imaging
  • Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System* / pathology
  • Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Intracranial Hemorrhages* / diagnostic imaging
  • Intracranial Hemorrhages* / etiology
  • Intracranial Hemorrhages* / therapy