Biogenic manganese oxides combined with 1-hydroxybenzotriazol and an Mn(II)-oxidizing enzyme from Pleosporales sp. Mn1 oxidize 3,4-dimethoxytoluene to yield 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde

J Biosci Bioeng. 2021 May;131(5):475-482. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2020.12.014. Epub 2021 Jan 23.


Using soil samples, we screened for microbes that produce biogenic manganese oxides (BMOs) and isolated Mn(II)-oxidizing fungus, namely Pleosporales sp. Mn1 (Mn1). We purified the Mn(II)-oxidizing enzyme from intracellular extracts of Mn1. The enzyme oxidized Mn(II) most effectively at pH 7.0 and 45 °C. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified enzyme possessed homology with multicopper oxidases in fungi. The properties of the enzyme and the effects of the pH and inhibitors on the Mn(II)-oxidization activity suggested that the enzyme is a member of the multicopper oxidase family. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the BMOs produced by Mn1 showed a strong correlation with that of a typical poorly crystalized vernadite (δ-MnO2). Since BMOs are some of the most reactive materials in the environment, we investigated a potential new application of BMOs as oxidation catalysts. We confirmed that BMOs oxidized aromatic methyl groups when combined with the purified enzyme and a mediator, 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT). BMO oxidation of 3,4-dimethoxytoluene achieved a better yield than that of abiotic MnO2 and white-rot fungus laccase under acidic and neutral pH conditions. Under neutral pH, the BMOs oxidized 3,4-dimethoxytoluene to yield 200-fold more 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde than that of abiotic MnO2. This is the first report to reveal that BMOs combined with a Mn(II)-oxidizing enzyme and mediator can oxidize aromatic hydrocarbons to yield corresponding aldehydes.

Keywords: Biogenic Mn oxides; Enzymatic Mn(II) oxidation; Multicopper oxidase; Oxidation catalyst; Pleosporales.

MeSH terms

  • Ascomycota / enzymology*
  • Manganese / metabolism*
  • Manganese Compounds / metabolism*
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Oxides / metabolism*
  • Oxidoreductases / metabolism*
  • Toluene / analogs & derivatives*
  • Toluene / metabolism
  • Triazoles / metabolism*


  • Manganese Compounds
  • Oxides
  • Triazoles
  • dimethoxytoluene
  • Toluene
  • Manganese
  • 3,4-dimethoxytoluene
  • manganese oxide
  • 1-hydroxybenzotriazole
  • Oxidoreductases