Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been found in plants, mammals, and natural environmental processes. The presence of ROS in mammals has been linked to the development of severe diseases, such as diabetes, cancer, tumors, and several neurodegenerative conditions. The most common ROS involved in human health are superoxide (O2•-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radicals (•OH). Organic and inorganic molecules have been integrated with various methods to detect and monitor ROS for understanding the effect of their presence and concentration on diseases caused by oxidative stress. Among several techniques, fluorescence and electrochemical methods have been recently developed and employed for the detection of ROS. This literature review intends to critically discuss the development of these techniques to date, as well as their application for in vitro and in vivo ROS detection regarding free-radical-related diseases. Moreover, important insights into and further steps for using fluorescence and electrochemical methods in the detection of ROS are presented.
Keywords: electrochemical sensor; fluorescence sensor; in vivo detection; oxidative-stress-related disease; reactive oxygen species.