We report an extremely rare case of combined classical and periodontal Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) with early severe periodontitis and a generalized lack of attached gingiva. A German family with classical EDS was investigated by physical and dental evaluation and exome and Sanger sequencing. Due to the specific periodontal phenotype in the affected child, an additional diagnosis of periodontal EDS was suspected. Physical and genetic examination of two affected and three unaffected family members revealed a family diagnosis of classical EDS with a heterozygous mutation in COL5A1 (c.1502del; p.Pro501Leufs*57). Additional to the major clinical criteria for classical EDS-generalized joint hypermobility, hyperelastic skin, and atrophic scarring -the child aged four years presented with generalized alveolar bone loss up to 80%, early loss of two lower incisors, severe gingival recession, and generalized lack of attached gingiva. Due to these clinical findings, an additional diagnosis of periodontal EDS was suspected. Further genetic analysis revealed the novel missense mutation c.658T>G (p.Cys220Gly) in C1R in a heterozygous state. Early severe periodontitis in association with generalized lack of attached gingiva is pathognomonic for periodontal EDS and led to the right clinical and genetic diagnosis in the present case.
Keywords: C1R; Ehlers−Danlos syndrome; complement; periodontitis; type V collagen.