Background: Mature Cystic Teratoma (MCT) is a benign tumor that can lead to malignant transformation (MT) in 1-3% of cases. Management of MT is a big challenge for gynecologic oncologists due to the lack of specific diagnostic and treatment protocols.
Case presentation: We reported two Iranian cases of MT of MCT with two different stages and prognosis. Our both cases presented the same symptoms, including chronic abdominal pain and distention, loss of appetite, and weight loss. In case number 1, despite the large size of the tumor, the disease was at stage Ia and had a good prognosis; while, case number 2 was at stage IIIc of the disease with a poor prognosis.
Conclusion: The stage of the disease is the most important prognostic factor, and early diagnosis and treatment are very critical for better survival.
Keywords: Dermoid cyst; Malignant transformation; Mature cystic teratomas; Squamous cell carcinoma.