An update on Heck's disease-a systematic review

J Public Health (Oxf). 2022 Jun 27;44(2):269-285. doi: 10.1093/pubmed/fdaa256.


Background: Previous research has suggested an ethnic association of Heck's disease with a prominent genetic and familial inheritance pattern, but no systematic review has been reported, which has collected all the evidence in one paper. The aim was estimation of the updated age estimates and gender predilection of this disease and also questioning its proposed link to ethnic and geographical factors.

Methods: Heck's disease from 1966 until present are tabulated, including various descriptive characteristics. After removal of duplicates and adhering to all the inclusion criteria, we shortlisted 95 case reports. The quality assessment of all included studies has been done following STROBE (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology) guidelines.

Results: We found an age range of 3-92 years (mean: 23.1 years) with a male to female ratio of 3:4. Geographical distribution revealed one of the main findings of this study, which was an increased incidence of Heck's disease in the European region.

Conclusions: As already observed and established, there is a much greater prevalence of this disease in the indigenous populations of the world and more research should be encouraged to understand the correct transmission and pattern of spread of this disease.

Keywords: HPV 13; indigenous health; multifocal epithelial hyperplasia; oral disease; viral.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Young Adult