Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of Chitinase GH18 Gene Family in Mycogone perniciosa

Front Microbiol. 2021 Jan 11;11:596719. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.596719. eCollection 2020.


Mycogone perniciosa causes wet bubble disease in Agaricus bisporus and various Agaricomycetes species. In a previous work, we identified 41 GH18 chitinase genes and other pathogenicity-related genes in the genome of M. perniciosa Hp10. Chitinases are enzymes that degrade chitin, and they have diverse functions in nutrition, morphogenesis, and pathogenesis. However, these important genes in M. perniciosa have not been fully characterized, and their functions remain unclear. Here, we performed a genome-wide analysis of M. perniciosa GH18 genes and analyzed the transcriptome profiles and GH18 expression patterns in M. perniciosa during the time course of infection in A. bisporus. Phylogenetic analysis of the 41 GH18 genes with those of 15 other species showed that the genes were clustered into three groups and eight subgroups based on their conserved domains. The GH18 genes clustered in the same group shared different gene structures but had the same protein motifs. All GH18 genes were localized in different organelles, were unevenly distributed on 11 contigs, and had orthologs in the other 13 species. Twelve duplication events were identified, and these had undergone both positive and purifying selection. The transcriptome analyses revealed that numerous genes, including transporters, cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs), cytochrome P450, pathogenicity-related genes, secondary metabolites, and transcription factors, were significantly upregulated at different stages of M. perniciosa Hp10 infection of A. bisporus. Twenty-three out of the 41 GH18 genes were differentially expressed. The expression patterns of the 23 GH18 genes were different and were significantly expressed from 3 days post-inoculation of M. perniciosa Hp10 in A. bisporus. Five differentially expressed GH18 genes were selected for RT-PCR and gene cloning to verify RNA-seq data accuracy. The results showed that those genes were successively expressed in different infection stages, consistent with the previous sequencing results. Our study provides a comprehensive analysis of pathogenicity-related and GH18 chitinase genes' influence on M. perniciosa mycoparasitism of A. bisporus. Our findings may serve as a basis for further studies of M. perniciosa mycoparasitism, and the results have potential value for improving resistance in A. bisporus and developing efficient disease-management strategies to mitigate wet bubble disease.

Keywords: Mycogone perniciosa; chitinase glycoside hydrolase 18 gene family; expression pattern; phylogeny; transcriptome.