Diagnostic yield of conventional endoscopy with endoscopic ultrasonography for submucosal invasion of superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a post hoc analysis of multicenter prospective confirmatory study (JCOG0508)

Esophagus. 2021 Jul;18(3):604-611. doi: 10.1007/s10388-021-00815-3. Epub 2021 Jan 28.


Background: Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is reportedly the reliable modality to predict the depth of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), however, most previous studies are retrospective or single-centered. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic ability of conventional endoscopy and EUS using the data from a multicenter prospective study of endoscopic resection (ER) followed by chemoradiotherapy for cSM1-2N0M0 ESCC (JCOG0508).

Methods: All lesions were evaluated as cSM cancer with both conventional endoscopy and EUS before enrollment and judged as cSM1 or cSM2 in real time. We compared the clinical and pathological diagnoses for tumor depth and assessed the positive predictive value (PPV) for pSM (pSM/cSM) as the primary endpoint. We also investigated the clinical factors affecting the pathological depth of SM.

Results: 175 lesions were examined, and clinical diagnosis was SM1 in 114 and SM2 in 61 lesions. The pathological diagnoses of the epithelium, lamina propria mucosa, muscularis mucosae, SM1, and SM2 were 3, 31, 55, 17, and 69. The PPV for pSM was 49.1% (86/175) in all lesions, 34.2% (39/114) in cSM1 lesions, and 77.0% (47/61) in cSM2 lesions. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that cSM2 (vs. cSM1, OR 6.79) was an independent clinical factor associated with pSM.

Conclusions: While the accurate depth diagnosis in cSM ESCC was difficult to make, the clinical diagnosis of SM2 with both conventional endoscopy and EUS was significantly associated with pSM. Furthermore, diagnostic ER could be recommended to confirm the pathological diagnosis especially in cSM1 lesions with both conventional endoscopy and EUS.

Keywords: Conventional endoscopy; Endoscopic resection; Endoscopic submucosal dissection; Endoscopic ultrasonography; Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal
  • Endosonography
  • Esophageal Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma* / surgery
  • Humans
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology
  • Prospective Studies
  • Retrospective Studies