The effect of porosity and mineral content on the Young's modulus of elasticity of compact bone

J Biomech. 1988;21(2):131-9. doi: 10.1016/0021-9290(88)90006-1.


The Young's modulus of elasticity, the calcium content and the volume fraction (1-porosity) of 23 tension specimens and 80 bending specimens, taken from compact bone of 18 species of mammal, bird and reptile, were determined. There was a strong positive relationship between Young's modulus and both calcium content and volume fraction. A power law model fits the data better than a linear model. Young's modulus has a roughly cubic relationship with both calcium content and volume fraction. Over 80% of the total variation in Young's modulus in this data set is explained by these two variables.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Bone and Bones / analysis
  • Bone and Bones / physiology*
  • Elasticity
  • Mathematics
  • Minerals / analysis*
  • Models, Biological


  • Minerals