Measurable residual disease in multiple myeloma and light chain amyloidosis: more than meets the eye

Leuk Lymphoma. 2021 Jul;62(7):1544-1553. doi: 10.1080/10428194.2021.1873320. Epub 2021 Jan 28.


The emergence of highly effective multiple myeloma (MM) treatments may bring cure within reach and highlights the need for highly sensitive measurable residual disease (MRD) techniques to replace conventional response assessments. MRD is being incorporated as an endpoint in an increasing number of studies and had been repeatedly shown to be both a predictive marker of response to treatment and a prognostic marker for future relapse. However, those results should be cautiously interpreted due to non-uniform reporting and the need for longer follow up to assess for sustained MRD negativity. This review aims to critically analyze the key MRD aspects including the current evidence supporting the use of MRD in clinical practice and the pitfalls of the various methods used to assess MRD. The utility of MRD for light chain (AL) amyloidosis will also be discussed.

Keywords: MRD; amyloidosis; measurable; minimal; myeloma; prognosis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin Light-chain Amyloidosis* / diagnosis
  • Immunoglobulin Light-chain Amyloidosis* / therapy
  • Multiple Myeloma* / diagnosis
  • Multiple Myeloma* / therapy
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • Neoplasm, Residual
  • Treatment Outcome