Diagnosis and management of Bartter syndrome: executive summary of the consensus and recommendations from the European Rare Kidney Disease Reference Network Working Group for Tubular Disorders

Kidney Int. 2021 Feb;99(2):324-335. doi: 10.1016/j.kint.2020.10.035.


Bartter syndrome is a rare inherited salt-losing renal tubular disorder characterized by secondary hyperaldosteronism with hypokalemic and hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis and low to normal blood pressure. The primary pathogenic mechanism is defective salt reabsorption predominantly in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle. There is significant variability in the clinical expression of the disease, which is genetically heterogenous with 5 different genes described to date. Despite considerable phenotypic overlap, correlations of specific clinical characteristics with the underlying molecular defects have been demonstrated, generating gene-specific phenotypes. As with many other rare disease conditions, there is a paucity of clinical studies that could guide diagnosis and therapeutic interventions. In this expert consensus document, the authors have summarized the currently available knowledge and propose clinical indicators to assess and improve quality of care.

Keywords: Bartter syndrome; hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis; inherited hypokalemia; salt-losing tubulopathy.

Publication types

  • Practice Guideline
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alkalosis*
  • Bartter Syndrome* / diagnosis
  • Bartter Syndrome* / genetics
  • Bartter Syndrome* / therapy
  • Consensus
  • Humans
  • Hypokalemia*
  • Rare Diseases