Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MWS) is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by distinctive facial features, congenital heart defects, Hirschsprung disease, genitourinary anomalies, various structural brain anomalies, and intellectual disability. Pathogenic mutations that result in haploinsufficiency in the ZEB2 gene cause MWS. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the clinical features and molecular analysis results of 4 MWS patients. All patients were examined by an expert clinical geneticist. Dysmorphological abnormalities were recorded. Data including demographic, clinical, and laboratory findings were obtained from hospital records. ZEB2 gene analysis was performed using a Sanger sequencing method. All patients had typical facial features of MWS such as widely spaced eyes, broad eyebrows with a medial flare, low-hanging columella, prominent or pointed chin, open-mouth expression, and uplifted earlobes. Four different heterozygous mutations were identified; 2 mutations were frameshift (c.246_247delGGinsC, c.980_980delG), 1 was nonsense (c.2083C>T), and 1 was splice site (c.808-2A>G). Two of them (c.246_247delGGinsC, c.980_980delG) have not been previously reported in the literature. By defining 2 novel mutations, this study contributes to the molecular spectrum of MWS, while also providing a further insight for genetic counseling. It also demonstrates the importance of dysmorphological examination in clinical diagnosis.
Keywords: Facial dysmorphism; Genetic syndrome; Language impairment; Mowat-Wilson syndrome; ZEB2.
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