Background: Evidence is needed on the effectiveness of wearing face masks in the community to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Methods: Systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the efficacy and effectiveness of face mask use in a community setting and to predict the effectiveness of wearing a mask. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCISEARCH, The Cochrane Library, and pre-prints from inception to 22 April 2020 without restriction by language. We rated the certainty of evidence according to Cochrane and GRADE approach. Findings: Our search identified 35 studies, including three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (4,017 patients), 10 comparative studies (18,984 patients), 13 predictive models, nine laboratory experimental studies. For reducing infection rates, the estimates of cluster-RCTs were in favor of wearing face masks vs. no mask, but not at statistically significant levels (adjusted OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.78-1.05). Similar findings were reported in observational studies. Mathematical models indicated an important decrease in mortality when the population mask coverage is near-universal, regardless of mask efficacy. In the best-case scenario, when the mask efficacy is at 95%, the R0 can fall to 0.99 from an initial value of 16.90. Levels of mask filtration efficiency were heterogeneous, depending on the materials used (surgical mask: 45-97%). One laboratory study suggested a viral load reduction of 0.25 (95% CI 0.09-0.67) in favor of mask vs. no mask. Interpretation: The findings of this systematic review and meta-analysis support the use of face masks in a community setting. Robust randomized trials on face mask effectiveness are needed to inform evidence-based policies. PROSPERO registration: CRD42020184963.
Keywords: COVID−19; SARS—CoV−2; community; disease outbreaks; face mask; pandemics; prevention and control [MeSH]; systematic review.
Copyright © 2021 Coclite, Napoletano, Gianola, del Monaco, D'Angelo, Fauci, Iacorossi, Latina, Torre, Mastroianni, Renzi, Castellini and Iannone.