Objectives: The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network identified 4 novel protein expression-defined subgroups in patients with lower-grade gliomas (LGGs). The RPPA3 subtype had high levels of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2, further increasing the chances for targeted therapy. In this study, we aimed to explore the relationships between magnetic resonance features and reverse phase protein array (RPPA) subtypes (R1-R4).
Methods: Survival estimates for the Cancer Genome Atlas cohort were generated using the Kaplan-Meier method and time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curves. A total of 153 patients with LGG with brain magnetic resonance imaging from The Cancer Imaging Archive were retrospectively analyzed. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator algorithm was used to reduce the feature dimensions of the RPPA3 subtype.
Results: A total of 51 (33.3%) RPPA1 subtype, 42 (27.4) RPPA2 subtype, 19 (12.4%) RPPA3 subtype, and 38 (24.8%) RPPA4 subtype were identified. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, subventricular zone involvement [odds ratio (OR), 0.370; P = 0.006; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.181-0.757) was associated with RPPA1 subtype [area under the curve (AUC), 0.598]. Volume of 60 cm3 or greater (OR, 5.174; P < 0.001; 95% CI, 2.182-12.267) was associated with RPPA2 subtype (AUC, 0.684). Proportion contrast-enhanced tumor greater than 5% (OR, 4.722; P = 0.010; 95% CI, 1.456-15.317), extranodular growth (OR, 5.524; P = 0.010; 95% CI, 1.509-20.215), and L/CS ratio equal to or greater than median (OR, 0.132; P = 0.003; 95% CI, 0.035-0.500) were associated with RPPA3 subtype (AUC, 0.825). Proportion contrast-enhanced tumor greater than 5% (OR, 0.206; P = 0.005; 95% CI, 0.068-0.625) was associated with RPPA4 subtype (AUC, 0.638). For the prediction of RPPA3 subtype, the nomogram showed good discrimination, with an AUC of 0.825 (95% CI, 0.711-0.939) and was well calibrated. The RPPA3 subtype was associated with shortest mean overall survival (RPPA3 subtype vs other: 613 vs 873 days; P < 0.05). The time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curves for the RPPA3 subtype was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.60-0.84) for survival at 1 year. Decision curve analysis indicated that prediction for the RPPA3 model was clinically useful.
Conclusions: The RPPA3 subtype is an unfavorable prognostic biomarker for overall survival in patients with LGG. Radiogenomics analysis of magnetic resonance features can predict the RPPA subtype preoperatively and may be of clinical value in tailoring the management strategies in patients with LGG.
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