Tofacitinib is an oral, small molecule Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). We characterized tofacitinib pharmacokinetics in patients with moderate to severe UC, and the effects of covariates on variability in pharmacokinetic parameter estimates. Data were pooled from 1 8-week phase 2 and 2 8-week phase 3 induction studies, and a 52-week phase 3 maintenance study (N = 1096). Population pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. Potential predictors of apparent oral clearance (CL/F) and volume of distribution (V/F) were evaluated. The PK was described by a 1-compartment model parameterized in terms of CL/F (26.3 L/hour [h]) and V/F (115.8 L), with first-order absorption (Ka ; 9.85 h-1 ) and lag time (0.236 h). The derived elimination half-life was approximately 3.05 h. In the final model, baseline creatinine clearance, sex, and race (Asian vs non-Asian) were significant covariates for CL/F; significant covariates for V/F were age, sex, and body weight; baseline albumin and baseline Mayo score were not significant covariates. CL/F between-patient variability was estimated at 22%. Tofacitinib exposure did not change significantly over the duration of induction/maintenance treatment in patients with UC. Although statistically significant covariate effects on CL/F and V/F were observed, the magnitude of the effects are not clinically significant. Therefore, dose adjustment/restrictions for age, body weight, sex, race, or baseline disease severity are not required during tofacitinib treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov numbers: NCT00787202, NCT01465763, NCT01458951, NCT01458574.
Keywords: CP-690,550 (tofacitinib); Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors; inflammatory bowel disease; pharmacokinetics; ulcerative colitis.
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