The treatment of epididymal spermatozoa of guinea pig and ejaculated spermatozoa of rabbit with neuraminidase from Arthrobacter ureafaciens induced significant acrosome reaction while the neuraminidase from Cl. perfringens failed to do so. The addition of the neuraminidase inhibitors kept the enzyme induced acrosome reaction to the control level. The zona-free hamster ova test showed that the treatment of spermatozoa with Arthrobacter neuraminidase rendered 82% of the guinea pig and 69% of the rabbit spermatozoa capable of fertilization. Thus, neuraminidase seems to enhance the rate of acrosome reaction by first capacitating spermatozoa in vitro.