A 17-year-old girl was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). After the administration of high-dose methotrexate (MTX) or intrathecal MTX, the patient experienced transient hemiparesis and motor aphasia. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed a high-intensity lesion in the bilateral centrum semiovale, and a vasospasm was detected in the proximal segment of bilateral A1 on magnetic resonance angiography. Edaravone was administered, and leucovorin rescue treatment was continued; eventually, the patient's neurological symptoms completely resolved. This finding suggested that vasospasm might be a mechanism underlying MTX-induced transient encephalopathy in adolescent and young adult patients with ALL.
Keywords: acute lymphoblastic leukemia; adolescent and young adult; methotrexate; transient encephalopathy; vasospasm.