Should We Implement Geographic or Patient-Reported Social Determinants of Health Measures In Cardiovascular Patients

Ethn Dis. 2021 Jan 21;31(1):9-22. doi: 10.18865/ed.31.1.9. eCollection Winter 2021.


Objectives: To compare patient-reported social determinants of health (SDOH) to the Brokamp Area Deprivation Index (ADI), and evaluate the association of patient-reported SDOH and ADI with mortality in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Design: Prospective cohort.

Setting: Academic medical center.

Participants: Adults with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and/or acute exacerbation of heart failure (HF) hospitalized between 2011 and 2015.

Methods: Patient-reported SDOH included: income range, education, health insurance, and household size. ADI was calculated using census tract level variables of poverty, median income, high school completion, lack of health insurance, assisted income, and vacant housing.

Primary outcome: All-cause mortality, up to 5 years follow-up.

Results: The sample was 60% male, 84% White, and 93% insured; mean patient-reported household income was $48,000 (SD $34,000). ADI components were significantly associated with corresponding patient-reported variables. In age, sex, and race adjusted Cox regression models, ADI was associated with mortality for ACS (HR 1.23, 95% CI 1.06, 1.42), but not HF (HR 1.09, 95% CI .99, 1.21). Mortality models for ACS improved with consideration of social determinants data (C-statistics: base demographic model=.612; ADI added=.644; patient-reported SDOH added=.675; both ADI and patient-reported SDOH added=.689). HF mortality models improved only slightly (C-statistics: .600, .602, .617, .620, respectively).

Conclusions: The Brokamp ADI is associated with mortality in hospitalized patients with CVD. In the absence of available patient-reported data, hospitals could implement the Brokamp ADI as an approximation for patient-reported data to enhance risk stratification of patients with CVD.

Keywords: Cardiovascular Disease; Mortality; Patient-Reported Outcomes; Social Determinants of Health.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cardiovascular Diseases*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Income
  • Male
  • Patient Reported Outcome Measures
  • Prospective Studies
  • Social Determinants of Health*