A Study on Efficacy of UGI Scopy in Cholelithiasis Patients before Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

Minim Invasive Surg. 2021 Jan 13:2021:8849032. doi: 10.1155/2021/8849032. eCollection 2021.

Abstract

Objectives: Upper abdominal symptoms are common in both gallstone disease and inflammatory disorders of gastroduodenum. To differentiate the causes of upper gastrointestinal symptoms due to gallstone and gastroduodenal disorders, upper gastrointestinal (UGI) scopy is a useful diagnostic tool. Our aim of study is to determine the efficacy of the preoperative UGI scopy and concurrent treatment of associated esophageal and gastric pathologies with symptomatic cholelithiasis in view of postoperative symptom reduction.

Materials and methods: This is a prospective study comprising 400 symptomatic cholelithiasis patients admitted in our institution. All patients underwent upper GI endoscopy (1-4 days) prior to cholecystectomy, and the findings were noted. Then, based on findings in UGI scopy, patients were grouped as group A (endoscopy normal) and group B (endoscopy with some findings). Group B patients were treated with medication, and both groups were operated with laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Pain and other symptoms in the preoperative period and postoperative period were measured and compared in both groups.

Results: After excluding 7 patients with significant endoscopy findings, we have included 400 patients who underwent laparoscopy cholecystectomy. In a total of 400 patients, median age of presentation was 47.3 and female to male ratio was 2.2 : 1. Endoscopy showed some pathological findings in 75.5% patients, and the commonest endoscopy finding was gastritis. On comparison of pain score in preoperative patients, pain score was high in group B patients (p < 0.05). Pain reduction was significant in postoperative 1st, 4th, and 6th weeks in both groups (p < 0.0005). In the same way, other symptoms other than pain were compared which shows postoperative symptom reduction is highly significant in group B patients.

Conclusion: Clinical presentation of cholelithiasis and other upper GI diseases resemble each other. It is difficult to discriminate between upper GI symptoms due to cholelithiasis or any other upper GI conditions. Although UGI scopy is not recommended for all patients with cholelithiasis, it may be beneficial to do UGI scopy in certain cholelithiasis patients with atypical presentation to prevent atypical symptoms after surgery.