Identification and Purification of Novel Low-Molecular-Weight Lupine Allergens as Components for Personalized Diagnostics

Nutrients. 2021 Jan 28;13(2):409. doi: 10.3390/nu13020409.


Lupine flour is a valuable food due to its favorable nutritional properties. In spite of its allergenic potential, its use is increasing. Three lupine species, Lupinus angustifolius, L. luteus, and L. albus are relevant for human nutrition. The aim of this study is to clarify whether the species differ with regard to their allergen composition and whether anaphylaxis marker allergens could be identified in lupine. Patients with the following characteristics were included: lupine allergy, suspected lupine allergy, lupine sensitization only, and peanut allergy. Lupine sensitization was detected via CAP-FEIA (ImmunoCAP) and skin prick test. Protein, DNA and expressed sequence tag (EST) databases were queried for lupine proteins homologous to already known legume allergens. Different extraction methods applied on seeds from all species were examined by SDS-PAGE and screened by immunoblotting for IgE-binding proteins. The extracts underwent different and successive chromatography methods. Low-molecular-weight components were purified and investigated for IgE-reactivity. Proteomics revealed a molecular diversity of the three species, which was confirmed when investigated for IgE-reactivity. Three new allergens, L. albus profilin, L. angustifolius and L. luteus lipid transfer protein (LTP), were identified. LTP as a potential marker allergen for severity is a valuable additional candidate for molecular allergy diagnostic tests.

Keywords: cross-reaction; flour; food allergy; individualized diagnostics; legumes; lipid transfer protein; lupine; peanut; profilin.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Allergens / chemistry
  • Allergens / immunology
  • Allergens / isolation & purification*
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Child
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypersensitivity / immunology
  • Immunoglobulin E / immunology
  • Lupinus / chemistry*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Molecular Weight
  • Peanut Hypersensitivity / immunology
  • Plant Extracts / isolation & purification
  • Plant Proteins / isolation & purification
  • Precision Medicine
  • Seeds / metabolism
  • Young Adult


  • Allergens
  • Plant Extracts
  • Plant Proteins
  • Immunoglobulin E