Citrobacter tructae sp. nov. Isolated from Kidney of Diseased Rainbow Trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Microorganisms. 2021 Jan 28;9(2):275. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms9020275.


A novel Citrobacter species was isolated from the kidney of diseased rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared on a trout farm. Biochemical characterization and phylogenetic analysis were performed for bacterial identification. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and five housekeeping genes indicated that the strain belongs to the Citrobacter genus. However, multilocus sequence analysis, a comparison of average nucleotide identity, and genome-to-genome distance values revealed that strain SNU WT2 is distinct and forms a separate clade from other Citrobacter species. Additionally, the phenotype characteristics of the strain differed from those of other Citrobacter species. Quinone analysis indicated that the predominant isoprenoid quinone is Q-10. Furthermore, strain virulence was determined by a rainbow trout challenge trial, and the strain showed resistance to diverse antibiotics including β-lactams, quinolone, and aminoglycosides. The complete genome of strain SNU WT2 is 4,840,504 bp with a DNA G + C content of 51.94% and 106,068-bp plasmid. Genome analysis revealed that the strain carries virulence factors on its chromosome and antibiotic resistance genes on its plasmid. This strain represents a novel species in the genus Citrobacter for which the name C. tructae has been proposed, with SNU WT2 (=KCTC 72517 = JCM 33612) as the type strain.

Keywords: Citrobacter tructae; antibiotic resistance; fish pathogen; genome sequence; phylogeny; rainbow trout.