Reoperation after Hypospadias Repair: Long-Term Analysis

J Urol. 2021 Jun;205(6):1778-1784. doi: 10.1097/JU.0000000000001569. Epub 2021 Feb 2.


Purpose: While the true incidence of secondary hypospadias repair is unknown, the current literature cites a 3.3% to 6.7% reoperation rate after distal hypospadias repair and an association with age. We hypothesized that secondary surgery rates are associated with patient factors and have been underreported due to limited followup.

Materials and methods: We used an academic practice plan consortium database to identify a population that underwent primary hypospadias repair in 2009 and 2010. Secondary surgeries between 2009 and 2019 were captured. The association of variables such as age, insurance type, region, surgeon volume and surgeon years in practice with all-inclusive and specific secondary surgery procedures were analyzed using mixed effects multiple logistic regression models.

Results: We identified 5,178 boys who had primary hypospadias repair performed by 84 pediatric urologists at 46 hospitals in 2009 and 2010. During the ensuing 9 to 10 years, distal, proximal and perineal hypospadias repair had a 12.6%, 37.9% and 46.6% rate of secondary surgery, respectively. After adjusting for all other variables in the model, patients with noncommercial insurance had a 26% (OR 1.26, p=0.04) increased odds of secondary surgery. Patient age and surgeon years in practice were not associated with all-inclusive secondary surgery except for endoscopic treatment. Surgeon volume was not associated with secondary surgery.

Conclusions: This study demonstrated that secondary surgery rates are underreported if followup is limited to less than 6 years. Patient age, surgeon volume and experience did not associate with all-inclusive reoperation rates whereas insurance status was a major predictor of reoperation.

Keywords: age factors; hypospadias; postoperative complications; reoperation.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Hypospadias / surgery*
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Reoperation / statistics & numerical data*
  • Time Factors
  • Urologic Surgical Procedures, Male / methods
  • Urologic Surgical Procedures, Male / statistics & numerical data