SUMOylation- and GAR1-Dependent Regulation of Dyskerin Nuclear and Subnuclear Localization

Mol Cell Biol. 2021 Mar 24;41(4):e00464-20. doi: 10.1128/MCB.00464-20. Print 2021 Mar 24.


The nuclear and subnuclear compartmentalization of the telomerase-associated protein and H/ACA ribonucleoprotein component dyskerin is an important although incompletely understood aspect of H/ACA ribonucleoprotein function. Four SUMOylation sites were previously identified in the C-terminal nuclear/nucleolar localization signal (N/NoLS) of dyskerin. We found that a cytoplasmic localized C-terminal truncation variant of dyskerin lacking most of the C-terminal N/NoLS represents an under-SUMOylated variant of dyskerin compared to wild-type dyskerin. We demonstrate that mimicking constitutive SUMOylation of dyskerin using a SUMO3 fusion construct can drive nuclear accumulation of this variant and that the SUMO site K467 in this N/NoLS is particularly important for the subnuclear localization of dyskerin to the nucleolus in a mature H/ACA complex assembly- and SUMO-dependent manner. We also characterize a novel SUMO-interacting motif in the mature H/ACA complex component GAR1 that mediates the interaction between dyskerin and GAR1. Mislocalization of dyskerin, either in the cytoplasm or excluded from the nucleolus, disrupts dyskerin function and leads to reduced interaction of dyskerin with the telomerase RNA. These data indicate a role for dyskerin C-terminal N/NoLS SUMOylation in regulating the nuclear and subnuclear localization of dyskerin, which is essential for dyskerin function as both a telomerase-associated protein and as an H/ACA ribonucleoprotein.

Keywords: GAR1; SUMOylation; dyskerin; nuclear localization; subnuclear localization; telomerase.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism*
  • Cell Nucleus / metabolism
  • Cytoplasm / metabolism*
  • Dyskeratosis Congenita / genetics
  • Dyskeratosis Congenita / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Nuclear Localization Signals / genetics
  • Nuclear Proteins / metabolism
  • RNA / metabolism
  • RNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Ribonucleoproteins, Small Nucleolar / metabolism*
  • Sumoylation / physiology*
  • Telomerase / metabolism


  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • GAR1 protein, human
  • Nuclear Localization Signals
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • RNA-Binding Proteins
  • Ribonucleoproteins, Small Nucleolar
  • telomerase RNA
  • RNA
  • Telomerase