22q11.2 deletion syndrome: 20 years of experience from two pediatric immunology units and review of clues for diagnosis and disease management

Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2021 Jan 2;49(1):95-100. doi: 10.15586/aei.v49i1.24. eCollection 2021.


Introduction and objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate patients diagnosed with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and determine the clues directing to diagnosis and evaluation of immunological findings for excellent management of the disease.

Material and methods: Thirty-three pediatric patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome diagnosed between 1998 and 2019 at Pediatric Immunology Division of Ege University Faculty of Medicine and SBU Izmir Dr Behcet Uz Children's Education and Research Hospital were evaluated.

Results: This study includes the largest case series reported from Turkey. Congenital cardiac anomalies were the most common pathology associated with the syndrome (90.9%). Hypocalcemic symptoms were observed in 13 patients (40%). Twenty-two of the 33 (66.6%) patients were diagnosed before two years of age. Autoimmune diseases, dysmorphic facial findings, recurrent infections, growth retardation, and speech impairment were other clues for diagnosis in older patients. Clinical spectrum and immunological abnormalities of this syndrome are quite variable. All T-cell subset counts were less than 5th percentile below median by age in one patient (3%) and 10 patients had normal all T-cell subset counts (30.3%). Overall, 69.6% of the patients had normal IgG, IgA, and IgM levels and two patients had panhypogammaglobulinemia. Recurrent infections were revealed in 75.7% of the patients during follow-up.

Conclusions: Presence of cardiac anomaly is more helpful in the diagnosis, especially under two years of age. Patients with immunologically high or standard risk did not show any difference in terms of numbers and severity of infections and autoimmunity.

Keywords: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome; Immunodeficiency; Infections; Thymus; pediatric.

MeSH terms

  • Abnormalities, Multiple / diagnosis
  • Abnormalities, Multiple / immunology
  • Abnormalities, Multiple / therapy
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • DiGeorge Syndrome / diagnosis*
  • DiGeorge Syndrome / immunology
  • DiGeorge Syndrome / therapy*
  • Disease Management
  • Female
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / diagnosis
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / immunology
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / therapy
  • Humans
  • Hypocalcemia / diagnosis
  • Hypocalcemia / immunology
  • Hypocalcemia / therapy
  • Immunoglobulin Isotypes / blood
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Lymphocyte Subsets / cytology
  • Male
  • Turkey


  • Immunoglobulin Isotypes