Background: Egg allergy is the second most common food allergy in children. Persistent food allergy increases the risk of anaphylaxis and reduces the quality of life.
Objective: To determine the efficacy of oral immunotherapy (OIT) with raw egg white powder and study its effects on humoral responses in children with persistent egg allergy.
Methods: Fifty children aged 6 to 17 years with egg allergy, diagnosed by double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, were randomized 3:2 to 8 months of OIT with a maintenance dose of 1 g of egg white protein or 6 months of avoidance after which the avoidance group crossed over to OIT. We examined changes in IgE, IgG4, and IgA concentrations to Gal d 1-4 during OIT compared with avoidance and assessed clinical reactivity at 8 and 18 months.
Results: After 8 months, 22 of 50 children (44%) on OIT and 1 of 21 (4.8%) on egg avoidance were desensitized to the target dose, 23 of 50 (46%) were partially desensitized (dose <1 g), and 5 of 50 (10%) discontinued. IgG4 concentrations to Gal d 1-4 and IgA to Gal d 1-2 increased significantly, whereas IgE to Gal d 2 decreased. A heatmap analysis of the IgE patterns revealed 3 distinct clusters linked with the clinical outcome. High baseline egg white-specific IgE and polysensitization to Gal d 1-4 related with failure to achieve the maintenance dose at 8 months. After 18 months of treatment, 36 of 50 patients (72%) were desensitized and 8 of 50 (16%) partially desensitized.
Conclusions: OIT with raw egg enables liberation of egg products into the daily diet in most patients. Subjects with high egg white-specific IgE concentrations and sensitization to multiple egg allergen components at baseline benefit from prolonged treatment.
Keywords: Desensitization; Egg allergens; Gal d 1; Hen's egg allergy; Oral immunotherapy; Ovalbumin; Ovomucoid; Tolerance.
Copyright © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.